Redirections (part 1), File-Viewing Commands (part 2), inittab File (part 3)

Part 1

Linux distributions have three basic forms of Input/Output (standard input, standard output, and standard error) redirections which will need to understand how to use each one.

  • State the purpose of each of three I/O forms including which file descriptor is used for each one
  • Provide your own redirection command syntax example as well as description what your command syntax will do
  • (optional-challenging) How would command syntax appear if you want redirect the cat command standard ouput and standard error to the same file? This would be useful if you want to view results of the cat command in a file containing both regular output and any error(s) which might appear (ex. syntax error).

Part 2

Three file-viewing commands (head, tail, and less) are used to display a portion of a file. These are especially useful when you have a very large text file you want to view and you want to narrow you display of it.

Provide me one or more command syntax examples using each of the three file-viewing commands. You must provide me using at least one command option (ex. with head command you can specify the number of lines to display using “-n num” option).

Part 3

/etc/inittab file is one of the most important files on a Linux (and UNIX) operating system. It is read when the Linux /sbin/init program starts your system. The /etc/inittab file lists what programs to start depending on the run level.

Provide a sample syntax (id:runlevels:action:process) of an /etc/inittab entry as follows:

id = identify your entry

runlevels = specify that the process will run at run levels 3 and 5

Action = specify to init program how to treat the program

Process = provide your own name including if there is any input or output redirection

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